Diabetes mellitus is an acquired or inherited metabolic disease, manifested by an increase in blood sugar levels, due to a lack of insulin in the body. Approximately every fourth person suffering from this disease, at the initial stage, does not even realize that he is sick.
Pregnancy exerts an increased load on the mother's body, it was at this time that many chronic diseases worsen, new problems appear. Among violations of metabolic processes in women who are carrying a child, gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) occurs most often. About 4% of pregnancies accompany this disease, 80% of them occur with complications for the mother, in 45% of cases it causes gestosis.
In a growing organism, all processes occur much faster than in adults, therefore it is very important to recognize and stop the disease at the very beginning. The development of diabetes in children proceeds rapidly, the time from the first pronounced symptoms to diabetic coma takes a few days, and even hours. Often, diabetes is detected in the conditions of the medical facility where the child was taken unconscious.
Under one name "diabetes" hides several little similar diseases. The causes of their development and treatment strategy are fundamentally different. The quality of life of the patient depends largely on the correctness of the diagnosis, therefore, the classification of diabetes mellitus has been repeatedly revised and complicated.
The term "diabetes" is derived from the Greek "leak", in ancient times it was believed that the fluid entering the body, with this disease passes the body through, not assimilated. Diabetes insipidus is a rare chronic pathology that fully complies with the ancient definition. Its cause is a lack of a hormone that regulates the excretion of water by the kidneys.
Type 2 diabetes begins gradually, carbohydrate metabolism disorders accumulate for decades, and for some, since childhood. Prediabetes can last for many years, until the pathological changes become critical, and the sugar level is constantly elevated. It has been established that in the USA a third of the population is at the stage of pre-diabetes, that is, one more step down, and they will be in the clutches of an incurable disease.
In a healthy person, the body itself controls the indicators of glucose - the main source of energy. If there is a sharp decrease in blood sugar, the brain cells begin to experience starvation, as a result of which they die. Symptoms of hypoglycemia (lack of glucose in the blood) are always pronounced, and it is quite easy to recognize them.
Let's say right away that while diabetes is incurable. The goal of therapy is to normalize blood glucose, in other words, to compensate for diabetes. If a man keeps glucose for a long time, complications do not develop, and some even regress. The state of health with compensated diabetes is good, the symptoms of the disease are absent, the life expectancy is the same as in healthy men.
In a healthy person, blood glucose is automatically regulated by a complex mechanism that provides carbohydrate metabolism. High blood sugar levels indicate a failure of this mechanism. In most cases we are talking about diabetes. This chronic disease has many complications, covering all systems of the body.
Constant thirst, increased urination, weakness and fatigue, dry mucous membranes are typical symptoms of an increase in the concentration of glucose in the vessels. To reduce blood sugar levels at home, you can with the help of diet, loads and folk remedies. We will make a reservation that we are talking only about the diagnosed type 2 diabetes, insulin therapy is always prescribed for patients with type 1.
Determining the type of diabetes mellitus is not always easy, as there are variations of the disease, the symptoms of which can be attributed to both the first and the second type. A steady increase in glucose at a young age, like in type 1, with a mild course characteristic of type 2, was called Modi diabetes. MODY is an abbreviation of "maturity onset diabetes of the young," which can be translated as "adult diabetes in the young."
Excess weight in the second half of life, lack of movement, food with an abundance of carbohydrates have a much more negative impact on health than is commonly believed. Type 2 diabetes is an incurable, chronic disease. It develops most often due to the modern lifestyle - the abundance of products, the availability of transport, sedentary work.
For a long time, diabetes mellitus was diagnosed only with the help of a fasting blood test. After improving the research methods, it was established that the increased blood glucose begins to harm the body much earlier than it exceeds the reference values. It turned out that there is a hidden form of diabetes mellitus, which may not manifest itself for a long time, while damaging the blood vessels and nervous system of a person.
The group of chronic metabolic pathologies characterized by a high glucose content due to impaired insulin production is diabetes mellitus. He is diagnosed at any age, child, middle, elderly. Diabetes in the elderly 60-65 years old is almost 9% of all cases, and by the age of 75 the incidence rate rises sharply to 23.
Type 2 diabetes requires continuous lifelong treatment. The main goals of therapy are to limit the supply of carbohydrates from food and the removal of sugar from the body primarily by increasing its expenditure on vital processes. The main role in the treatment of diabetes is played by proper nutrition, weight control, regular exercise.
A complete cure for diabetes is a matter of the future. Currently, making such a diagnosis means a lot of restrictions, life-long therapy, constant struggle with progressive complications. That is why the prevention of diabetes is extremely important. It includes a number of simple measures, most of which can be described with the phrase "healthy lifestyle".
Calculating carbohydrates in food accounts for diabetics with both the first and the second type of disease. To facilitate this task, a special measure has been developed - grain units (HE). Initially, they were used for patients receiving insulin. Tables of bread units in a variety of products greatly facilitate the calculation of the dose of the hormone.
Diabetes requires a person to spend money: stripes, drugs, diet, regular check-ups. We will try to figure out whether the state can compensate them, whether they give a disability in case of diabetes, how it can be obtained, and what benefits the disabled and patients without a group have.
Scientifically proven fact: regular physical education in the second type of diabetes greatly facilitates the course of the disease. The effect of loads on the strength of action is comparable with antidiabetic drugs. In the course of the research it was found that in patients after 4 months of classes, diabetes control is significantly improved, weight is reduced, blood circulation increases, and the likelihood of depression decreases.
The cause of increased glucose can be a prolonged excess of steroids in the blood. In this case, the diagnosis is “steroid diabetes mellitus”. Most often, the imbalance occurs due to prescribed drugs, but may also be a complication of diseases leading to increased hormone release.
The goal of diabetes treatment is to keep glucose at a level close to normal for a long time. If this fails, they say that the patient has decompensated diabetes. To achieve long-term compensation is possible only with the help of strict discipline. The treatment regimen includes: adherence to the mode and composition of nutrition, active, but not excessive exercise, timely taking of hypoglycemic drugs, the correct calculation and the introduction of insulin.