Analyzes for pancreatitis are necessary to establish a reliable diagnosis. Diagnosis of the disease includes various methods: laboratory, ultrasound of the liver and bile ducts, radiography, biochemistry, FGDS, laparoscopy, etc.
There are so many of them that patients have a question, what should be the tests for pancreatitis.
It all depends on the form of pathology - chronic or acute. What kind of study to pass the patient, determines the attending physician.
The main signs of pancreatitis
Disappointing statistics show that the incidence of pancreatitis over the past half century has increased by 2 times. The pancreas, in addition to hormones, produces pancreatic juice - special enzymes that break down complex molecules of proteins, carbohydrates and fats.
Normally, they enter the duodenum. Inflammation of the pancreas occurs due to the activation of pancreatic juice in the body itself. Thus, the gland tissue begins to digest, which sometimes leads to absolute death - pancreatonecrosis.
Pancreatitis in 50% of cases develops due to the abuse of alcoholic beverages. Also, factors that increase the risk of the appearance of pathology can be various infections, poor diet, gallstone disease and abdominal injuries.
The disease can occur in an acute and chronic form.
Symptoms of acute pancreatitis are pronounced:
- severe abdominal pain, sometimes encircling;
- heart palpitations and irritability;
- general malaise and disability;
- bouts of nausea and vomiting, not bringing relief;
- frequent diarrhea with mucus and undigested food residues.
In chronic pancreatitis, the above symptoms do not turn into exacerbation and have blurred manifestations. As a rule, at the beginning of the development of pathology a person feels pain after taking a meal. Over time, the clinical picture becomes more pronounced.
If signs of pancreatitis appear, you should immediately seek medical help. The doctor-gastroenterologist after collecting anamnesis will prescribe the passage of the necessary tests to make an accurate diagnosis.
Only then will effective treatment be prescribed.
Clinical and biochemical blood test
An important role before the delivery of the biomaterial is played by the preparation for the examination. The main recommendations are abstaining from alcohol, strong tea and coffee, moderate exercise and healthy sleep.
The results of the test may be affected by taking medications such as ascorbic acid and Paracetamol. If shortly before the study you need to undergo ultrasound, x-rays or physiotherapy, it is better to postpone the test. Blood sampling is done in the morning.
Initially, the specialist must make sure that the patient’s body contains inflammation. This requires a clinical blood test for pancreatitis. It plays a minor role because it cannot establish in which organ inflammation occurs.
The pathological process is indicated by the following indicators:
- Low hemoglobin and red blood cell levels are due to bleeding or hemorrhage.
- Increased concentration of hematocrit as a result of impaired water and electrolyte balance.
- Erythrocyte sedimentation rate increase (ESR).
- The concentration of leukocytes increased tenfold.
Blood biochemistry for pancreatitis has a more important role. Thanks to this research, a specialist can determine the general condition of the body.
When pancreatitis in the blood test, the following picture is noted:
- an increase in the content of bilirubin, bilirubin - a component of bile, the amount of which increases when the biliary tract is blocked;
- elevated amylase, amylase - a special pancreatic enzyme that breaks down starch;
- elevated blood sugar (more than 5.5 mmol / l), the pancreas is not able to produce the required amount of insulin, so the level of glucose in the bloodstream is constantly increasing;
- an increase in the content of such enzymes as elastase, trypsin, transaminase, lipase and phospholipase;
In addition, total protein is low as a result of protein-energy starvation. The rate is 64-86 g / l.
Examination of feces
Relevant is the analysis of fecal pancreatitis, which can indicate inflammation of the organ.
Since the necessary amount of digestive enzymes does not enter the intestine, the process of digesting food is very difficult. First of all it concerns fat food.
The appearance of the chair is very different from healthy.
The main signs of pancreatitis are:
- Mushy cal.
- The presence of fat in it.
- Undigested particles.
- Very sharp and bad smell.
- Light brown or grayish shade.
The reason for the change in the state of fecal masses is the rotting of undigested proteins in the gastrointestinal tract. In addition, feces acquire a shiny surface, and it is difficult to wash them off the walls of the toilet bowl.
The frequency of going to the toilet "in a big way" is significantly increased. Diarrhea increases in cases where the patient eats food that is difficult to assimilate - sweets, preservation, fatty and pickled foods.
Currently, stool analysis to determine the pathology is used less and less.
Now more effective is the sounding, in which the collection of pancreatic juice.
Deciphering urine test results
The study of urine is quite informative. Delivery of the biomaterial is carried out in the morning, for the second time the urine is examined within 24 hours. Many patients are trying to independently decipher what the results of the analysis mean, but only a doctor can interpret it.
Urine of a healthy person has a light yellow color. The more saturated color of the urine may be a consequence of renal dysfunction or abnormalities of the digestive system.
The clouding of the biomaterial indicates the presence of pus in it. Normally, urine should remain transparent. If tumors develop in the pancreas, this reflects a high accumulation of bilirubin in the urine.
The presence of glucose in a liquid can speak of many diseases. In this case, diabetes mellitus, reactive pancreatitis, renal failure affect the kidneys. Normally, urine does not contain glucose or its concentration does not exceed 0.02%.
Hemoglobin is also not found in the urine of a healthy person. Its presence is evidence of severe intoxication, prolonged infectious diseases, or hypothermia.
When abdominal pain take a urine analysis for the presence of diastase - an enzyme that breaks down carbohydrates.
The norm in an adult should not be more than 64 units.
Other methods of diagnosing pancreatitis
In addition to clinical and biochemical blood tests, other methods of diagnosing pancreatitis are used in medical practice.
Identification of immunoreactive trypsin. Specificity does not exceed 40%, therefore this diagnostic method is used less frequently. This means that in 60% of cases a positive result is evidence of the development of other pathologies. For example, cholecystitis, hypercortisolism, pleurisy and renal failure.
Determination of trypsinogen in urine. This method is quite sensitive and informative, because with pancreatitis urine always contains an inactive form of the enzyme trypsin. However, it is used extremely rarely because of its high cost.
Detection of trypsin inhibitors in the bloodstream. The lower this figure, the more affected the pancreas.
To determine organ inflammation, the doctor may prescribe the following instrumental methods:
- x-ray of the duodenum;
- Ultrasound of the bile duct or liver;
- fibrogastroduodenoscopy (FGDS), etc.
Only after making a diagnosis, the specialist prescribes the use of such drugs as antispasmodics, m-cholinolytics, H2-blockers, enzymatic means, probiotics (Bifidium), etc. For auxiliary purposes, you can use medicinal herbs for the pancreas.
You can take the tests both in the free and in the paid laboratory. If the financial condition of the patient allows you to pass a paid examination, it is better to seek help from a private laboratory, which will provide more reliable results.
The etiology and methods of diagnosing pancreatitis are discussed in the video in this article.