Treatment of type 1 diabetes is impossible without insulin, a hormone that normally is produced in sufficient quantities by the pancreas. Modern injecting drugs are obtained through the achievements of genetic engineering and biotechnology, using modified bacteria for its production.
These drugs are distinguished by high purity, low allergenicity, and improved pharmacological properties (as opposed to products that are made from raw materials of animal origin). Soluble insulin of this group is most often included in the composition of short-acting preparations that are intended for administration before meals.
The mechanism of action and features of the introduction
When ingested, genetically engineered insulin interacts with the receptors (sensory endings) of the cell membranes and forms a specific insulin-receptor complex. Due to this, the intracellular concentration of glucose increases, and its level in the free bloodstream, on the contrary, decreases. The use of this type of insulin is accompanied by such positive effects for the body:
- the synthesis (formation) of the protein is accelerated;
- insulin resistance decreases;
- glycogen breakdown in the liver slows down, so that glucose is not consumed so quickly and its blood level rises slowly.
This insulin can be used as the only drug for the treatment of patients with diabetes mellitus or in combination with other drugs. To avoid thinning of the subcutaneous fat (lipodystrophy), it is advisable to change the anatomical region for the injection each time.
Soluble human genetically engineered insulin is most often used to treat type 1 diabetes. But also indications for its introduction can be:
- type 2 diabetes mellitus with a complex course that cannot be corrected by diet and hypoglycemic drugs;
- acute complications of any type of disease (ketoacidosis, hyperglycemic coma);
- childbirth and surgery in patients with carbohydrate disorders in the metabolism;
- gestational diabetes (in case of failure of the diet).
If the patient is in a position with diabetes before the onset of pregnancy and has used this insulin for treatment, then she can continue therapy. But keep in mind that when carrying a fetus, the need for hormone may change, so the doctor must adjust the dose and select the optimal mode of injection. The drug can also be used during breastfeeding, if a woman needs insulin therapy, but such a decision can only be made by a doctor taking into account the balance of risks and benefits for the mother and the child.
Side effects and contraindications
Human insulin, obtained through biotechnological methods, is generally well tolerated by patients and rarely causes any pronounced side effect. But, like any other drug, it can theoretically provoke the development of undesirable effects from various organs and systems.
Side effects include:
- hypoglycemia (decrease in blood sugar below the physiological norm);
- fatigue, sleep disorders;
- redness and irritation of the skin at the injection site;
- hyperglycemia (with improperly selected dosage, violation of the diet or skipping the injection);
As a rule, ophthalmologic disorders are temporary, and disappear within two weeks. They are associated with the normalization of blood sugar levels and the inability of the small blood vessels of the retina to quickly adapt to these changes. If the vision continues to fall, or does not recover within a month after the start of therapy, the patient should contact an ophthalmologist for a detailed examination.
Do not prescribe this drug also for acute hepatitis, severe violations of the liver and kidneys, decompensated heart defects. With caution, this tool is used for disorders of cerebral circulation, thyroid disease and heart failure. If a diabetic takes medications to lower blood pressure in parallel, it is necessary to inform the endocrinologist about this, as the combination of insulin with some of them can lead to the development of hypoglycemia.
The use of insulin, obtained through the possibilities of modern genetic engineering, allows us to avoid many of the complications of diabetes. This medicine goes through several stages of cleaning, so it is safe even for allergy sufferers and debilitated patients. But, despite all the advantages of the medicine, you still can not self-medicate and use it without a doctor's prescription. Even the transition from one type of insulin to another can be made only after consulting an endocrinologist and testing. This will avoid unpleasant complications and ensure maximum efficacy of the drug.