Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a very severe pathology that can lead to serious consequences. One of these is atherosclerosis.
A person who has hormonal imbalance, at some point may face macro- or microangiopathy.
These are dangerous conditions of vessels of various organs of the human body. The prevalence of these violations is very high. According to medical statistics, almost 90% of all people suffering from diabetes have a microangiopathy, which at first glance is characterized by minor injuries, which, however, can lead to serious consequences.
However, fortunately, modern medicine with some success is able to deal with these conditions. Due to this, patients with diabetes can have a normal life.
The mechanism of destruction of blood vessels in a diabetic
Atherosclerotic disorders are based on inflammation.. It occurs due to the fact that due to the disturbance of glucose metabolism, some degradation of the vessels occurs - they become brittle and, therefore, they are easily damaged.
Stages of atherosclerosis
In view of this, over time, wounds appear on their walls, onto which blood cells quickly adhere. But besides them, these injuries are clogged by lipoproteins - fatty particles. When they become many, there are deposits. As a result of all this, inflammation occurs. With the passage of time, the lipid spot grows more and more.
At some point, smooth muscle cells are added to the fat particles. If this problem goes unnoticed for a long time, a so-called plaque is formed. She, in turn, significantly violates the passage of blood through the vessel, and in the worst cases, can lead to its rupture.
Causes of development and symptoms of atherosclerosis
Atherosclerotic changes are provoked by a whole set of factors. As the main ones, doctors call:
- low physical activity;
- unhealthy, and even more so - unsuitable for a diabetic diet;
- frequent and / or severe emotional overload.
The above is typical not only for patients with diabetes, but also for all people.
As for diabetics directly, then atherosclerosis most often occurs on the background of the following:
- lack of insulin, which causes abnormalities in fat metabolism;
- hypersensitivity of vessel walls to sugar;
- insufficient compensation.
Potentially serious consequences of the considered changes are possible to prevent.
To do this, the patient should promptly seek medical help. With the pathology under consideration, one should carefully monitor the state of the body.
Symptoms of atherosclerotic changes are as follows:
- periodically coming lameness (doctors call her intermittent);
- feeling of discomfort or even pain, which often appear during walking or other physical activity, and less often at rest;
- numbness of limbs and / or goosebumps;
- the occurrence of pruritus, in which there are no visual manifestations.
Also a person suffering from diabetes may notice other disorders. Due to the fact that atherosclerosis violated the vascular permeability, less blood flows to the epidermis. For this reason, it acquires a pale tint.
In addition, there may be a decrease in the temperature of a part of the body (for example, one of the limbs) in which lesions are present. When the defect becomes larger, the skin becomes bluish.
The listed symptoms are typical for almost every patient with diabetes who already has or is just beginning to develop atherosclerosis.
At the first stages, it can be expressed weakly, because of which the patient is able to calmly ignore them.
However, it is at this point that he is advised to listen to the body, and then immediately go for an examination.
In addition to all the above, significant mental disorders are possible. In particular, patients complain of dizziness and decreased performance. Also, some people experience frequent sleepiness and become more irritable. The corresponding effects are characteristic of people who have lesions in the brain.
What threatens hardening of arterioles and capillaries in type 2 diabetes?
Blood vessels are what carry oxygen and nutrients through the body. And if the arteries are a kind of highways, then the arterioles and capillaries are the roads along which the supply of tissues of organs takes place.
Sclerosis of small vessels, in turn, leads to degradation of cells.
The organs in which the corresponding violations are present receive less necessary substances, which is why they begin to function worse. The consequences can be very different. They depend on the location and extent of vascular lesions.
If there is a lesion in the brain, the perception is disturbed. The patient may deteriorate his eyesight, concentration, etc. If the defects are present in the skin, then the nerve endings begin to die off, which leads to a partial loss of touch.
Patients with diabetes are strongly advised to undergo frequent examinations, especially those aimed at determining the quality of the pulsations of various arteries.
This can prevent the development of serious defects in the large and most important blood vessels.
In addition to it, an ultrasound scan is performed in clinics, which allows to detect plaques and blood clots. More patients undergo ultrasound of various organs.
And the last - a blood test. The results of this study determine the amount of cholesterol. If it is highly elevated, then it is highly likely to indicate the presence of lesions.
Ways to treat diabetic vascular diseaseThere are several techniques that allow you to adjust the patient's condition in atherosclerosis.
One of them is physiotherapy. Now there are a number of relevant techniques.
Diadynamic therapy is used - it is aimed at improving the vessels in the extremities and involves the effect of electric current on the affected areas.
Amplipulse therapy is another way to correct the capillaries of the lower extremities. It involves the impact of a small current on the affected tissue. Also popular is the following method - laser therapy. It already assumes irradiation not with electricity, but with light of a certain frequency.
Surgical methods, in turn, are most often used for the defeat of large arteries. One of these is balloon angioplasty.
It involves the introduction of a special device in a vessel that is able to expand and shrink. Thanks to these actions, the artery subsequently acquires a normal patency.
And the last way is cellular. It is the most expensive. The essence of this method lies in the introduction of stem cells that heal the wounds formed and strengthen the walls of blood vessels.
A patient who has relevant problems should monitor their lifestyle.
Patients with diabetes, in particular, are recommended:
- completely refuse the use of harmful substances;
- follow the diet set by the doctor without question;
- regularly go for walks;
- increase physical activity;
- as often as possible to be examined.
These measures significantly reduce the likelihood of atherosclerosis.
How to deal with the occurrence of complications in blood vessels in diabetes:
Unfortunately, now there are no methods that would allow to cure this condition. But technologies have been developed that are able to correct the damage and return the person to a more or less normal life.