Diabetes mellitus imposes multiple restrictions on a person. This mainly concerns food culture. With impaired carbohydrate metabolism, you have to carefully think over the diet for a day. Diabetics often suffer from obesity, diseases of the kidneys, liver, and blood vessels; their carbohydrate and fat metabolism are disturbed. Therefore, food is chosen exclusively dietary, food is taken according to a certain pattern: often in small portions.
On the consumed products imposed task to limit the load on the internal organs and the stabilization of cholesterol metabolism. It is desirable that the food helped in the fight against obesity. One of the main sources of fiber and useful elements are fruits. Along with vegetables, they should be at least one third of the total daily diet. But how to determine which fruits can be eaten with diabetes? Let's help you figure it out.
The role of fruit for diabetics
The opinion that fruits are harmful to diabetics is wrong. The main thing is to choose the right range of consumed fruits and berries. By the amount of vitamins, minerals, fiber, fruits have no equal. But include them in the diet should be cautious. Abandoning sweet species and varieties, preferring sour and sour-sweet, with a large amount of pectic substances.
The composition and beneficial properties of fruit with diabetes:
- Insoluble fiber gives a quick feeling of satiety, allows you to quickly get rid of the feeling of hunger improves the bowels, increases peristalsis.
- Soluble fiber in contact with a liquid forms a loose substance that can adsorb toxins. Reduces the percentage of glucose, removes cholesterol, helps normalize metabolic processes, helps normalize weight.
- Pectin slows the flow of sugar into the blood, plays the role of a stabilizer. It is useful for the liver, normalizes cholesterol metabolism, inhibits the absorption of fat, helps to eliminate excess cholesterol from the blood.
- Vitamin C, which is rich in most sour berries and fruits, compensates for the lack of a vital component for the body of a sick person, plays the role of an antioxidant. Participates in reactions responsible for the elimination of excess free radicals. Increases hemoglobin level. A sufficient amount of vitamin C in the body helps secretion of its own insulin.
- Vitamin A. Hinders the development of diabetes and its complications. Normalizes immunity, favorably influences cell growth, increases the biological activity of other microelements.
- Vitamin E. It also has an antioxidant effect. Promotes lipid metabolism, controls the level of free radicals, improves blood properties, prevents the development of atherosclerosis. A sufficient amount of vitamin E eliminates the development of renal failure, normalizes blood flow in the retina.
- Vitamins of group B. Necessary for diabetics with impaired functions of nerve cells. Participate in metabolic processes associated with the combustion of carbohydrates. Contribute to the normalization of carbohydrate metabolism. Prevent the development of myocardial diseases. Interferes with oxidative stress in diabetics after meals. Participate in energy metabolism, the synthesis of fats and acids. Prevent the destruction of vessel walls and other vascular disorders.
- Selenium. It is part of the enzymes that protect the body from oxidative damage. It has pronounced antioxidant properties, prevents the destruction of the pancreas, improves the condition of the liver and kidneys. Prevents the development of eye cataracts.
- Lipoic acid. The most powerful fighter with all free radicals. Especially useful for disorders of the nervous system associated with the development of diabetes. Lipoic acid therapy eliminates the development of lesions of peripheral nerves.
- Zinc. Without it, the production of insulin is impossible, zinc stimulates its synthesis. Zinc is needed to develop the barrier ability of skin structures, which is important for the rapid healing of wounds. Improves the body's ability to resist infections.
- Manganese. Manganese deficiency causes the development of complications in diabetes. Lack of manganese leads to accumulation of fat in the liver.
- Chromium. A trace element that enhances the action of insulin and helps diabetic patients cope with the negative reactions of the body. Improves metabolic processes, reduces blood sugar, reduces the desire of diabetics to eat sweets, helps to endure a diet low in carbohydrates.
The lack of vitamins and minerals that some fruits are rich in has a negative effect on the condition of the diabetic. The deficiency is especially dangerous in case of long-lasting and severe disease. Water-soluble vitamins play a key role in the conversion of glucose. Disorders in the metabolism of water-soluble vitamins lead to severe metabolic disorders and a lack of energy in the body.
Peripheral nerve endings also suffer, leading to a disorder in the metabolism of neurotransmitters and impaired transmission of nerve impulses. The most important for the reception are vitamins with the antioxidant effect of lipoic acid and a number of minerals. All of these ingredients are present in fruits. Therefore, fruits that are allowed in type 2 diabetes, you need to eat regularly, diversify the range, give preference to seasonal species.
Additionally, you can take vitamin and mineral supplements that are permitted or directly targeted to a person with a diagnosis of diabetes.
Diabetes and fruits: concrete help
Fruits that can affect the course of carbohydrate metabolism and have in their composition a complete set of vitamins and mineral elements important for life have a beneficial effect on the body of a diabetic. Vegetovascular disorders are excluded from people, metabolic processes are normalized, weight gain does not occur, glucose and lipids in the blood do not exceed a dangerous level. It also reduces the susceptibility of patients to infectious diseases, increases efficiency.
Vitamin prophylaxis with fruit consumption plays an important role in the diet therapy of diabetics. Regular inclusion in the day menu manages to compensate for the gaps in carbohydrate metabolism. Fruit pectin binds together plant cells. It is a dietary fiber necessary for the normal functioning of the intestine, for the prevention of obesity. Especially a lot of pectin is found in the peel and soft shell of fruit. Insoluble matter absorbs cholesterol and monosaccharides, removes them from the body. Pectin improves the digestive effect of gastric enzymes. It stimulates the secretory function of the glands of the digestive system, is involved in peptide metabolism. It has a direct effect on the amount of insulin in the blood. And also increases the activity of absorption into the blood of other useful elements.
Nutritionists call plant foods with a high content of dietary fiber a source of "protected" carbohydrates, that is, those that are completely absorbed by the body and do not affect the jumps in the level of lipids and sugars in the blood.
Fruits are part of any vegetarian diet. It is proved that such a diet creates the least problems with metabolism, and therefore serves as a preventive measure for the development of vascular disorders and complications in diabetes.
When choosing which fruits you can eat with diabetes, stop at unsweetened varieties and types that mostly grow in your area. Useful apples and pears, plums, apricots, plums, peaches, garden raspberries, currants, gooseberries. From the forest are good cranberries, lingonberries, blueberries, strawberries. Well support the immune system and compensate for the lack of vitamins citrus. They cleanse the body and normalize the work of the kidneys gourds.
Here is an example of fruits and fruits with the highest glycemic index:
- Dates - 110;
- Raisin - 65;
- Banana - 60;
- Persimmon - 55;
- Melon and watermelon - 60;
- Mango - 55;
- Pineapple - 66.
In fruits and berries with a sweet and sour taste, GI usually does not exceed 50. In clearly acidic foods - no more than 30. Dried fruits have the highest GI. For example, GI of fresh grapes - 35, raisins - 65. But dried fruits are allowed for use as an ingredient for preparing beverages, fillings for savory pastries. And recall the rate at one time - no more than is placed in the palm.
In which fruit is the highest content of nutrients? Focus on the following data:
- The greatest amount of vitamin C is found in grapefruits, lemons, oranges, apples, raspberries, blackberries, wild rose, kiwi. And also in sea buckthorn, currants, Kalina, plums, strawberries.
- Vitamin A is rich in peaches, apricots, watermelons, melons, avocados.
- Oranges, garden strawberries, strawberries, bananas, black currants, grapefruit, and watermelon boast a high content of B vitamins.
- Vitamin E is found in sea buckthorn, wild rose, rowan, dried apricots, papaya, avocado.
- Vitamin P is rich in cherries, grapefruits, apricots, plums, lemons, black chokeberry, currants.
- Lipoic acid contains pomegranate, apricots, persimmon, cherry, apples, oranges, black currants, pineapple, cranberries, grapes.
- Selenium is rich in coconut, quince, mango, exotic loquat (loquat).
- Zinc is in lemons, oranges, lime, grapefruit, bananas, pomegranate, sea buckthorn.
- Manganese is found in bananas, plums, grapes.
- Chrome is in peaches, cherries, cherries, plums, cherry plums.
Apples, pears, avocados, apricots, grapefruits, melons, peaches are the largest fiber content. Most of all pectin - in apples, currants, chokeberry, pineapple, plum, rosehip, peaches, raspberries, cherries. One apple, for example, contains up to 1.5 g of pectin. To clean the body of toxins, prevent obesity, it is enough to consume 2-3 apples daily.
Grapefruit is considered a very useful fruit in type 2 diabetes. In addition to the high content of vitamins, it is distinguished by the presence of phenylamine - a substance that favorably affects glucose homeostasis. That is, the body's ability to independently regulate glucose levels and maintain balance. Grapefruit, as well as oranges, lemons, pomelo have high antioxidant activity due to the high content of vitamin C. Citrus fruits are rich in soluble fiber, as well as substances that normalize glucose.
How to use
Eating fruits in diabetes may be fresh, in salads, vitamin drinks. Diabetics even have delicious desserts made from nutritious and healthy products.
Remove several cores from a few sweet and sour apples. Fill the apples with a mixture of cottage cheese with chopped walnuts. Wrap each apple in foil and send it to a heated oven for 20 minutes. Unwrap a little cold dessert, put it in a plate with holes up.
Top each apple pour a spoonful of honey.
Wild Berry Kissel
A mixture of raspberries and strawberries crushed. Pour cold water at the rate of 1/5 (a glass of berries and a liter of water). Put on the fire and bring to a boil. Cook for 5 minutes. In half a glass of cold water to dissolve a spoonful of starch. Pour a thin stream into a bowl with a decoction of berries, stirring constantly. Immediately after boiling off. Kissel drink hot and eat cold. Fragrant drink fills with energy and fills the lack of vitamins.
Take an equal amount of cranberries and cherries. Crush cranberries, mix with cherry berries, pour with cold water in the proportion of 5/1. Bring to a boil and immediately remove from heat. Leave until cool. Separate the cold juice from the cake and berries with a sieve. Drink half a glass 1-2 times a day.
You can add a pill of fructose each time. Perfectly quenches thirst, refreshes, boosts immunity.