Diabetes mellitus is a chronic disease, it leads to severe disorders of fat, carbohydrate and protein metabolism. The causes of the pathological condition should be sought in inadequate production of the hormone insulin and its insufficient effect on the human body. Insulin is produced by special pancreatic islets of Langerhans, it is necessary for the rapid penetration of glucose into the cells of the body, the regulation of glycemic indices.
Simply put, diabetes mellitus is a disease in which the pancreas is unable to produce the proper amount of insulin or this hormone is of poor quality. For this reason, diabetes can be of two types: first, second. In 2017, patients with diabetes are becoming more and more, and most of all diabetics are Europeans.
Normally, human blood sugar is from 3.5 to 5.5 mmol / l, after eating it should be no higher than 7.8 mmol / l, since the pancreas immediately releases insulin into the blood. Sugar is the main source of energy, in the human body it is in the so-called empty form. The blood carries glucose to all organs, parts of the body and muscles, providing vital energy.
With a rapid decrease in the level of sugar, there is insufficient penetration into the cells of the nervous system, the spinal cord and brain immediately begin to undergo acute glucose deficiency, and violations occur.
To maintain health, WHO has developed recommendations for patients with diabetes mellitus, such rules help to maintain good health, according to statistics, advice minimizes severe symptoms of the disease at times.
Types of diabetes
Diabetes of the first type is characterized by insulin deficiency due to the destruction of the beta cells of the pancreas, which leads to an absolute lack of a hormone. Often, this form of pathology is detected in young people, gives the symptoms: polyuria, loss of body weight, the development of ketosis, painful thirst.
However, type 1 diabetes can occur at any age, slowly progressing. With latent autoimmune diabetes in adults, insulin deficiency develops over the years. In patients who produce autoantibodies to pancreatic beta-cell proteins, acute manifestation of diabetes mellitus or its extremely slow development can be observed.
Diabetes of the second type is characterized by a deficiency of beta cells, which is associated with obesity of varying severity, sedentary lifestyle. Insulin production is initially impaired, which provokes postprandial hyperglycemia. After that, fixation of hyperglycemia on an empty stomach takes place.
Diabetes of the second type often occurs in older patients, about 90% of diabetics suffer from this form of the disease. As obesity spreads, doctors note:
- younger age of onset of type 2 diabetes;
- early manifestation of the disease.
There is another form of diabetes - gestational, it develops in women during pregnancy. The risk of developing diabetes of the second type is increased in those women who had problems with their blood sugar levels while carrying a child.
Other specific forms of the disease: isolated cases of gene mutations, secondary diabetes, chemically or drug-induced diabetes.
The National Diabetes Registry only confirms this fact.
What can be complications
It has long been known that diabetes mellitus itself is not dangerous, but its complications, and such health disorders can be of varying degrees of severity. Most often, the patient complains of a rapid deterioration of memory, impaired brain activity, changes in body weight.
The World Health Organization (WHO) claims that a patient with diabetes sooner or later begins to have interruptions in the functioning of the urogenital area, women with hyperglycemia have menstrual disorders, a woman can become infertile, and a man is impotent.
A dangerous complication of the disease will be a decrease in the quality of vision, its complete loss and blindness is not excluded. With interruptions in blood sugar levels, serious problems with the teeth, oral cavity, skin, liver and kidneys work. The patient soon loses sensitivity to high and low temperatures, pain of varying degrees of intensity.
Patients with advanced diabetes note violations:
- excessive dryness of the skin;
- the appearance of ulcers, cracks and other skin lesions.
In addition, the blood circulation is significantly deteriorated, and the elasticity of the blood vessels is lost. A diabetic after years, the lower limbs are deformed, there are serious problems with the cardiovascular system. Due to circulatory disorders there is a risk of developing diabetic neuropathy, gangrene of the extremities, and as a result of this - further amputation of the affected leg. As a rule, this happens when the development of the first or second diabetes in men over 50 years.
If you prevent diabetes of the first type is problematic, it is quite possible to prevent the development of the second type of disease, for this WHO has developed recommendations for patients with diabetes and for patients who want to prevent the progression of a pathological condition. This is especially true for patients who have a predisposition to changes in glycemia and a rapid increase in blood sugar concentration, it happens:
- with poor heredity;
- with diseases of the pancreas.
It is possible to defend oneself from type 2 diabetes mellitus if one fulfills all the requirements of medical professionals
Ways to prevent diabetes
If we immediately discard the causes of hyperglycemia, which a person cannot influence, then diabetes can be prevented in almost 99% of cases. Endocrinologists recommend that patients try to lose weight if there is an excess of it.
If you lose at least 5 kilograms, you can prevent diseases immediately by 70%.
Doctors advise people to adhere to a healthy lifestyle, moderate exercise, because such measures are always beneficial.
It may well be enough every day:
- long walk;
- ride a bike;
Such a load well strengthens the muscular system, also contributes to the normalization of indicators of weight. Doctors confirm that the proposed methods significantly reduce the risk of diabetes. Physical activity for 30 minutes a day will reduce the likelihood of diabetes by about 80%.
During walking, the absorption of the hormone insulin improves, it actively penetrates the cells. Thus, the accumulation of glucose is broken down and eliminated, gluing the walls of blood vessels.
Another method that WHO (World Health Department) recommends is the use of untreated cereals. But before using such food, it is necessary to familiarize yourself with its composition, find out the glycemic index, sugar content. There are other tips for diabetics, how to prevent diabetes mellitus and its complications.
The development of type 2 diabetes will help prevent the abandonment of the habit of consuming prepared foods, since such food does nothing but harm. It is also necessary to exclude:
- fast food;
- all kinds of canned food;
- other products of industrial production.
It is required to abandon fatty meats, replace them with poultry, raw vegetables. Doctors suggest that the connection between diabetes and fatty meat should be sought in excessive cholesterol. The less this substance in the blood, the greater the chance of normalizing health and eliminating diabetes.
Cinnamon helps many people with diabetes, its effectiveness has been proven by many scientific studies. For those people who consumed cinnamon, the likelihood of diabetes mellitus and glucose level drops decreased by about 10%. Such a positive effect can be easily explained by the presence of a special enzyme in cinnamon, which has a positive effect on the body, and also helps the cells to properly interact with the hormone insulin. Therefore, the recommendation of doctors - it is imperative to include cinnamon in the diet in order to prevent diabetes.
It is equally important to relax regularly, find time for quality sleep, avoid stress, which will also improve the patient's condition. If you do not adhere to such a rule, the body begins to accumulate strength for the response, it is constantly in tension, the pulse rises steadily, the headache is painful, the agonizing causeless anxiety does not pass. The proposed approach is well suited for the prevention of the causes and symptoms of diabetes in patients of any age.
To overcome stress will help:
- yoga classes (gymnastics will wake up the body, set it up for harmonious work);
- do everything without haste (it is shown to take several deep breaths and exhalations before performing any actions);
- to allocate time for rest (once a week it is useful to make a day off without thinking about problems).
It is also important to get enough sleep, sleep is simply indispensable for a person, it is an excellent measure to prevent diabetes. On average, it is necessary to sleep from 6 to 8 hours a day, if a person does not get enough sleep, the likelihood of developing diabetes mellitus increases about two times. And sleeping too long is also harmful, the duration of sleep over 8 hours a day will increase the risk of hyperglycemia three times at once.
Diabetes type 2 will help to regularly communicate with family members. Doctors have long noticed that lonely patients increasingly have addictions, this only aggravates their condition.
It is recommended from time to time to measure the indicators of sugar in the blood, it happens that diabetes occurs in a latent form, does not give the characteristic symptoms. To determine the pathology at the earliest stages, it is necessary to do tests for indicators of sugar.
It is best to donate blood at least once a year.
Diabetic nutrition, workout
Nutritional guidelines for diabetes, developed by WHO, suggest the abandonment of stereotypes and highlight the need to consume large amounts of natural food. It must be vegetables, fruits, cereals, lean meat, fish, greens, legumes. It has been repeatedly proven that there is not much difference between a high protein and low carbohydrate diet.
Special recommendations are given in relation to alcoholic drinks, empty carbohydrates, saturated trans fats, such foods should be excluded from the diet. Today there is no reliable data on the effectiveness of regular use of antioxidants, for example, vitamin E, C.
Patients who consume too much fat are allowed to follow the Mediterranean diet, since it regulates monounsaturated oils. Those suffering from diabetes need to distribute nutrients according to this principle:
- protein - 10-20%;
- fats - no more than 35%;
- polyunsaturated fatty acids - no more than 10%.
These recommendations for diabetes are not all ways to combat the disease. To maintain the body and blood sugar in adequate limits, it is useful to use plants that have powerful sugar-lowering properties. They are allowed to use in the form of decoctions, tinctures. Such plants will be an ideal substitute for expensive drugs against diabetes.
Among the plants should be called:
- leaves and fruits of walnut;
Besides the fact that they have a beneficial effect on the state of the organism and on the glycemic indices, plants contribute to the improvement of the body as a whole.
Since people with overweight are more likely to develop diabetes, it is important to lose excess fat. It is good that a diet is written for a person. If there is a predisposition to hyperglycemia, it is important to monitor your diet and the number of calories, bread units.
The diet should consist of protein foods, because excess fat and carbohydrates accumulate in the body and lead to obesity. It is necessary to forget about such products: sweet, rich pastries, smoked meats, carbonated drinks. Food must be as balanced as possible, with a sufficient amount of vitamins, minerals.
With obesity, power and aerobic exercise are shown, they help to improve the production of the hormone insulin, normalize blood glucose, blood pressure, and without training it is impossible to reduce the likelihood of developing diseases of the cardiovascular system.
Systematic, structured physical exertion is obligatory, they lower the level of sugar in diabetes of the first and second type, help the patient to minimize the risks of coma, hyperglycemia, reduce the severity of microvascular complications. Long-term workouts contribute to the reduction of vascular complications.
If you combine cardio and strength training, you can achieve the most pronounced effect.
Other recommendations for diabetics
For persons with diabetes, WHO has developed a treatment guide, therapy involves the use of drugs, nutrition, exercise. Moreover, they treat diabetes of the first and second type in different ways.
In the first case, it is shown to inject insulin every day, this condition is the most important and most important. Diabetics should be equally attentive with respect to their diet, the amount of food, recalculating it to bread units, must determine the dosage of insulin. Also needed physical therapy for diabetes to maintain body tone, lowering blood glucose levels.
Patients with diabetes mellitus of the first type of own insulin is not produced, so they can not be without continuous administration of the drug. Insulin can be animal or human, the best of animals should be called pork insulin.
However, recently human insulins are being used more and more often, they are obtained by means of gene modification of proteins. The advantage of human insulin:
- the absence of many adverse reactions of the body;
- good tolerability.
In order to maximally imitate the natural work of the pancreas, the pharmaceutical industry has learned to produce drugs of various durations: ultrashort, short, extended, ultra-long.
For convenience, short and long insulins produce different in appearance: a short hormone is always transparent, and a long one is turbid.
When short insulin has become cloudy, this means that it has lost its properties and is forbidden to use it.
Main features of insulin administration
Recommendations for the treatment of diabetes regulate the use of the hormone insulin. Thus, drugs such as Novorapid, Humalog (ultrashort insulins) are shown to be used exclusively before or immediately after a meal. This approach is quite convenient for the patient, does not cause confusion.
Short insulin to reduce hyperglycemia as quickly as possible should be applied immediately after eating carbohydrate foods, administered it half an hour before meals, because only after this time does it begin to work.
The peculiarity of short insulin is the dose-dependent effect; the higher the dose, the slower it is absorbed. If you apply from 4 to 6 U of the drug, it acts after 15-30 minutes, the maximum concentration is reached in an hour and a half. A dose of 20 U maximally effective after 2 hours, the effect ends after 4-6 hours.
So long-acting insulin mimics the constant production of human hormone, it is best to apply with 12-14 hours of action, they are administered 2 times: before breakfast and before bedtime. Such preparations contain a special substance that:
- binds insulin;
- inhibits its entry into the bloodstream.
There are also so-called multipeak insulins, they contain a certain amount of long and short insulins. When using such a tool, there is no need for injections before breakfast and dinner, because the hormone is injected into the mixture with a single needle. But it must be remembered that such agents are much more difficult to dose.
The video in this article presents the basic recommendations for a diabetic lifestyle.