The most important component of the treatment of patients with diabetes is nutrition. Its main rules for diabetes are regular meals, exclusion from the diet of quickly absorbed carbohydrates, the determination of calorie foods. To solve these problems, endocrinologists created the term bread unit and developed tables of bread units.
Medical nutrition experts recommend making up the daily menu for this category of patients by 55% -65% of slow-absorbing carbohydrates, 15% -20% of proteins, 20% -25% of fats. Specially for determining the amount of carbohydrates consumed, bread units (CEM) were invented.
In Russia, it is considered that one unit corresponds to 10-12 grams of carbohydrates, in the United States -15 grams. Eaten XE increases glucose level by 2.2 mmol / l, to neutralize it, 1-2 IU of insulin is required.
Tables of bread units for diabetics reflect the carbohydrate content of various foods. When creating this term, nutritionists took rye bread as a basis: its a piece weighing twenty-five grams is considered to be one bread unit.
What are bread tables for?
The goal of treatment of patients with diabetes is to mimic the natural release of insulin, choosing such doses and lifestyles so that the level of glycemia is close to the accepted norms.
Modern medicine offers the following treatment regimens for insulin:
- Multiple injection regimen;
When calculating the dose of insulin, you need to know the amount of XE, based on the calculated carbohydrate products (fruits, dairy products and cereals, sweets, potatoes). Vegetables contain difficult-to-digest carbohydrates and do not play a significant role in increasing glucose levels.
The scheme of intensive insulin therapy provides for the basic (basic) administration of long-acting insulin (Lantus) once a day, against its background doses of additional (bolus) injections are calculated, which are administered before main meals directly or thirty minutes. For this purpose, use short-acting insulin.
For each bread unit contained in the planned menu, you need to enter (taking into account the time of day and glycemia level) 1ED insulin.
The need for time of day on 1XE:
- Morning - 1.5-2 PIECES of insulin;
- lunch - 1-1.5 units;
- dinner - 0.8-1 U.
It is necessary to consider the initial level of sugar content, the higher it is - the greater the dose of the drug. One unit of insulin action is capable of utilizing 2 mmol / l glucose.
If the patient is planning a meal, he is going to eat food at 3 XE, and the level of glycemia 30 minutes before meals corresponds to 7 mmol / l - he needs 1ED insulin to reduce glycemia by 2 mmol / l. And 3ED - for the digestion of 3 bread units of food. He must enter a total of 4U of short-acting insulin (Humalog).
Diet in type 1 diabetics who have learned how to calculate insulin dose from HE, using bread units tables, can be more free.
How to calculate bread units for diabetes
With a known mass of the product and the carbohydrate content of 100 grams - you can determine the number of bread units.
For example: a package of cottage cheese weighing 200 grams, 100 grams contains 24 grams of carbohydrates.
100 grams of cottage cheese - 24 grams of carbohydrates
200 grams of cottage cheese - X
X = 200 x 24/100
X = 48 grams of carbohydrates is contained in a pack of cottage cheese weighing 200 grams. If in 1X 12 grams of carbohydrates, then in a pack of cottage cheese - 48/12 = 4 XE.
Thanks to bread units, you can distribute the desired number of carbohydrates per day, this allows you to:
- Eat diverse;
- Do not limit yourself to food by choosing a balanced menu;
- Keep your blood glucose levels under control.
On the Internet you can find diabetic nutrition calculators, which calculate the daily diet. But this exercise takes a lot of time, it is easier to look at the tables of bread units for diabetics and to find a balanced menu. The number of required HE depends on body weight, physical activity, age and sex of a person.
Required daily amount of XE for patients with normal body weight
|Leading a sedentary lifestyle||15|
|People of mental labor||25|
|Hard labor workers||30|
Obese patients need a low-calorie diet, individual expansion of physical activity. The daily calorie of food should be reduced to 1200 kcal, respectively, the number of consumed bread units should be reduced.
|Leading not active lifestyle||10|
It is considered that the average number of required products per day can be 20-24ХЕ. It is necessary to distribute this volume for 5-6 meals. At the main receptions should fall on 4-5 XE, for afternoon tea and second breakfast - 1-2ХЕ. At one time, it is not recommended to eat more than 6-7ХЕ products.
With a lack of body weight, it is recommended to increase the number of XE to 30 per day. Children 4-6 years old need 12-14ХЕ per day, 7-10 years old recommend 15-16, from 11 to 14 years old - 18-20 bread units (for boys) and 16-17 HE (for girls). Boys from 15 to 18 years old need 19-21 bread units per day, girls two less.
Requirements for the diet:
- Eating foods containing dietary fiber: rye bread, millet, oatmeal, vegetables, buckwheat.
- The daily distribution of carbohydrates fixed in time and quantity is adequate to the insulin dose.
- Replacement of easily digestible carbohydrates with equivalent products, selected according to the tables of bread units for diabetics.
- Reducing the proportion of animal fats by increasing the amount of vegetable.
Patients with diabetes of the second type also need to use the tables of bread units in order to prevent overeating. If it is noticed that products containing harmful carbohydrates in the diet are more than acceptable standards - you need to reduce their consumption gradually. You can do this for 7-10 days at 2XE per day, bringing to the required rate.
Tables of bread units in diabetes of the first and second type
Endocrinological centers calculated tables of bread units in popular products based on the content of 12 grams of carbohydrates in 1 XE. Some of them bring to your attention.
Juices can be used with compensated forms of diabetes of the first and second types, when the glycemia level is stable, there are no sharp fluctuations in one direction or another.
In diabetes, it is recommended to use more vegetables, they contain a lot of fiber, and few calories.
|Fried potato||1st ct.||0.5|
|Boiled potatoes||1 average||1|
Dairy products should be eaten daily, preferably in the afternoon. This should take into account not only bread units, but also the percentage of fat content. Patients with diabetes recommend low-fat dairy products.
|Product||Weight g / ml Volume||HE|
|Cottage cheese dumplings||3 pcs||1|
|Cottage cheese casserole||75||1|
Pasta and cereals
|Wholemeal flour||4 tbsp||2|
|Fine flour||2 tbsp||2|
|Baked Dough Products||50||1|
|Rye flour||1 tbsp||1|
In case of diabetes, it is recommended to replace animal fats with vegetable fats.. This product can be used in the form of vegetable oils - olive, corn, linseed, pumpkin. Oil is squeezed from nuts, pumpkin seeds, flax, corn.
For the convenience of organizing the correct menu of a diabetic, endocrinologists have developed ready-made tables of bread units contained in various dishes:
|Meat pie||Half product||1|
|Meat Cutlet||1 average||1|
|Cottage cheese dumplings||8||4|
|Sausages and wieners||160||1|
People diagnosed with type 2 diabetes must learn to control blood sugar levels, make a menu, exercise regime. In the diet of patients should be foods high in fiber, bran.
There are recommendations that can help patients with type 2 diabetes to stabilize blood glucose levels:
- Use only natural sweeteners;
- Combine the intake of vegetables with starch-containing foods;
- Eat whole grain cereal, bran bread and wholemeal flour;
- Sweet should be combined with fiber and protein, excluding fats;
- Raw vegetables to eat in unlimited quantities;
- Instead of juices, use fruit with skin;
- It is recommended to chew food well;
- Significantly reduce the consumption of high-calorie foods, sweets, alcoholic beverages.